Tag: Science Communication

How to Stop the Clock

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Can we slow or even reverse ageing?

The good news is, slowing aging and gaining more than ten years is absolutely possible and doesn’t cost you anything except some discipline (yeah, I know, that’s the bad news here). However, to keep you reading, I’ll tell you a little later how that works. Whether it is possible to slow or even reverse aging is currently the topic of a lot of research.

But let’s start at the beginning. If you want to treat something, you first need to define it clearly. The most obvious definition for aging is chronological. However, changing the actual flow of time falls more into the realm of physics and is probably not very practical. What we want to influence is the biological age. To measure this, we use a lot of different methods, called “clocks,” and they work with blood parameters, heart rate variability, epigenetics, simple photos of your face, or other data. Clocks are all somewhat linked to chronological age but can generally tell you how one (or several) aspects of your biological age compare to the average person your age. So they tell you if you’re younger or older than you actually are.

The Hallmarks of Aging CC from Rebelo-Marques 2018

What is aging?

The specific unpleasant cellular effects of aging are summed up as the 9 Hallmarks of Aging that you see above. I won’t go into detail, but they are all interconnected and lead to what we recognize as aging, like wrinkles, grey hair, loss of muscle mass, frailty, dementia, decreasing bone density, and all the other stuff that you’re not keen on having.

Reading this list, you might already guess why treating aging might have other perks than just living longer. The biggest deal, not only for the individual but also for society, would be increasing the so-called healthspan. It can be argued that while in the last 100 years we have already more than doubled the average life span, the healthspan, the time lived in good health, hasn’t grown accordingly. Our current medicine has become very good at treating most of the countless ailments that old age brings; however, many are more managed than cured. So wouldn’t it be better (and cheaper, by the way) to treat the underlying cause of most illnesses instead of each of them at a time? The results of healthspan research could  revolutionize medicine and bring us from fixing what’s broken to preventing the breaking.

Lifestyle Interventions to Slow Aging

But how far along are we? Will we still get old like our grandparents? That depends. To cite one of the leading minds in this field of science, Professor David Sinclair: “It’s easy to expand your lifespan. […] If you do the right things, which is: Don’t overeat, eat less often during the day, do some exercise, don’t smoke, don’t drink! That alone gives you, compared to people who don’t do that, 14 extra years. So living longer isn’t hard, it just takes some discipline.” Well, I told you, it’s not too easy, but it’s doable.

Especially the eating less often part seems to be important. Intermittent fasting (best more than 16 hours without food) gives the cells a feeling of food scarcity and switches on certain survival programs. Probably the most important is autophagy which let’s cells recycle accumulated proteins and other reserves. This kind of a cleaning helps get rid of things that can cause trouble when they accumulate too much.

The other main effect is a reduction in metabolism and especially on cell division. Since cell division is on multiple levels the main reason for mutation (errors in the DNA) it is also the main reason for aging. Avoiding strong mutagens like smoking, excessive drinking (one drink a day seems to be positive) and sun bathing is helpful for the same reason.

Enough sleep and some exercise have also been shown to positively affect aging in human studies.

However, there is obviously more to aging research than the typical advice on living a more healthy lifestyle.

Different times for intervention to delay illness and death by delaying aging, Figure CC from Douglas R Seals, 2014

Supplements and Drugs

First of all, there are drugs and supplements  that (at least in animal models) show a huge potential to give another few healthy years like Nicotinamide Mononucleotide (NMN), α-Ketoglutarate (AKG), Resveratrol, Metformin, and Rapamycin. I won’t go into detail on those now, but I’ll write some more articles about that on my blog soon.

Most of these, however, seem to work mainly as a prevention and not a cure. And while they show a lot of promise in animal models, so far reliable data from humans is scarce. Most of them work through mimicking food scarcity which can also be reached through fasting.

Senolytics

But there are other measures in the pipeline. An interesting idea is the so-called “Senolytics.” Instead of killing themselves as damaged cells normally do, some become senescent. Senescence occurs when cells sense an instability of their chromosomes after having divided a certain number of times or because of high stress (due to their Telomers), so they permanently stop dividing. Senescent cells also secrete signals that lead to inflammation, changing the development of their surrounding cells and the extracellular matrix.

The more senescent cells in an organ, the less vital and functional the organ becomes. Senolytics like Dasatinib and Quercetin are substances that target and remove these senescent cells to rejuvenate the organ. There are ongoing clinical studies on human patients with these substances on several age-related diseases, and they show some promise, but there is still a lot of research to do.

Cellular Reprogramming

The idea that sounds probably most impossible but has the potential to slow the clock and actually reverse aging is cellular reprogramming. Each cell in our body has basically the same genetic information, the same construction plans packed into our DNA organized in chromosomes. But how does a cell in your brain know that it’s not in your foot and has to behave differently? And, even more important, how does a cell know that it’s not supposed to copy itself as often as possible or try to build a new complete clone of you? The answer is epigenetics (mostly). Epigenetics is quite a young field that has made huge progress in the last 15 years. Epigenetics determines which of the genes of a cell’s genome are switched on and switched off by modifying the DNA or proteins associated with the DNA. These bookmarks make a cell behave as it does. They are changed by environmental influences like sunshine, smoking, food, no food, or a thousand other things. Most of these factors and time itself lead to an overall decrease in these bookmarks, although certain areas of the genome also acquire more of them with time. So the idea is to reset these bookmarks to a “younger” state.​

Yamanaka Factors

In 2006 a set of four transcription factors (regulators for genes) were identified that can reset a differentiated cell from being part of a certain tissue to a very similar state to that of the cells you find in an embryo. The cells treated with the transcription factors become stem cells and can be reprogrammed into almost any cell type within the body. These transcription factors are called Yamanaka Factors after one of the authors of this study from 2006. Using the Yamanaka Factors, there have been successful reprogramming studies on animals. The aim is to reset the epigenetics of cells to young without dedifferentiating the cells, making the tissues they form fall apart. This technique is currently tested to restore vision in primates after successful tests on mice that have gone blind because of glaucoma. David Sinclair’s group carrying out these experiments expects it to be ready for human clinical trials within this year. If this is successful, it would be a new hope for many blind people and be a proof of concept for rejuvenating a tissue by epigenetic reprogramming.

This is however a very ambitious time line and I dare say it won’t happen. The main reason is that the Yamanaka factors used here are some of the most potent oncogenes. Those are genes responsible for the transformation of a cell into a cancer cell. It is to be expected that therapies working on a thin line between dedifferentiation and cancer will be looked upon with extreme scrutiny by the authorities before being accepted for human trials.

Making and using induced stem-cells from a patients biopsy to heal genetic or other deceases or even target aging, Illustration CC by Manal Hadenfeld, 2020

A possible future application of this could be to treat a patient’s cells outside the body to become stem cells and then inject them to regenerate damaged tissue or to rejuvenate the patient as a whole.

Much is unclear about reversing aging. Many studies in the field show contradicting results, but what would have seemed impossible 20 years ago is rapidly evolving from promising basic research to clinical trials. Currently, you still need some discipline and changes to your lifestyle if you want to increase your lifespan and healthspan. However, the more life and health you win through your life choices, the closer scientists might be to real solutions to all the unpleasant effects of aging and maybe to aging itself.

This post has first been published as a guest post on the blog BoldedScience.com and has since been modified and updated.

Social Media for Science

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Photo by Pixabay on Pexels.com

It’s been about two weeks since I started actively using this blog and as you’ve probably seen I’ve been busy. While I started this blog, I also started to think about how to get people to read it. The most obvious answer is social media. Social media channels are made to engage people and show them what you find interesting. For a long time I’ve only been using Facebook for private and LinkedIn for work purposes. I never really used Twitter because I always thought it’s mostly a platform where politics and media exchange views and act like they are the public.

Than I had a seminar about science communication with Susanne Geu. She told me Twitter is an excellent platform for science communication so when I started the blog, I also started to become active on twitter.

After about two weeks of active work on this blog and different social media channels I made the following discoveries

When it’s about clicks on your blog forget Twitter. You can very quickly find a great bubble of people working in a similar area and engage them quickly (from 1 to 70 followers in one week) but people on Twitter like it short. From thounsands of impressions you get a few hundred interactions and from those only a handful are clicks on your links. However it is still a great tool to get in touch and to communicate punchlines.

LinkedIn works about as good as I expected. Since I have a lot of contacts there I get a lot of quite some likes and quite some clicks but no active discussion or interaction.

I originally wanted to keep Facebook private but I still posted my Blog so friends could see what I’m doing and that obviously brought some encouragement. To tell friends, family and people you know what you’re doing you can also use the WhatsApp status.

What works really well to get clicks but also really good discussions is groups in Facebook. Find some good science groups and post and discuss there. This is not too easy because most groups in Facebook are either full of spam or completely inactive but there are some.

I’ll write an update on my experience with social media in a few months maybe then my impression has changed but so far I’d say all these channels have merits and a different target group.

What I did’t try yet because I do not really thinks that’s my audience is Instagram and TikTok. But maybe I’m wrong there so if you have a different opinion on these networks please let me know.

If you want to see what I do on these platforms please follow me on LinkedIn or Twitter!

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